Global Workplace Analytics is the foremost source of the latest work-at-home/telecommuting/mobile work/remote work statistics. Kate Lister, president of Global Workplace Analytics has been studying workplace trends and consulting with workplace leaders about to optimize their work-from-home initiatives for more than a decade. She is a recognized expert on the prevalence and impact of work-at-home/telework programs. She is the author of several books on the topic including Undress for Success: The Naked Truth About Working From Home and a chapter from the just-released peer-reviewed book edited by John Messenger, Telework in the 21st Century (Edward Elgar, 2019).
Note to Reporters—March 2020:
Kate Lister is happy to share what she knows about:
• The Global Covid-19 Work-from-Home Experience Survey (launched March 25 launch, closes April 24, 2020)
• Her advice to clients about what they need to be thinking about and doing during and after the Covid-19 crisis
• Traditional drivers of and obstacles to remote work
• The existing and potential impact of work-from-home on employer, employees, and the environment
• What governments need to do to encourage more remote work and why they should do it
Click here for our latest press releases on Covid-19 and work-from-home.
If you are on deadline call 760-703-0377 (during a decent hour, Pacific Time), otherwise please email Kate@GlobalWorkplaceAnalytics.com).
Telecommuting Trend Data (updated March 13, 2020)
Note: You do not need permission to use this data provided you cite GlobalWorkplaceAnalytics.com as the source. A link would be appreciated and we do say thank you by making sure our social network sees your work.
Below are the latest available statistics on the work-at-home/telework population in the U.S. based on our analysis of the 2005-2018 American Community Survey (ACS, a U.S. Census Bureau product). New ACS numbers, for the prior year, are released each Fall, so this page will be updated Sept/Oct of 2020.
The American Community Survey derives its data on the work-at-home population from the single question: What was your primary means of transportation to work during the survey week? “Worked at home” is one of the choices. Therefore, all we know about this population is that they worked at home half-time or more during the previous week.
Though often used interchangeably, ‘telework’ is defined as the substitution of technology for travel, while ‘telecommuting’ is more narrowly defined as the substitution of technology for commuter travel. Thus if someone takes work home after being at the office, it’s considered telework but not telecommuting. If someone works at home instead of driving to an office they are telecommuting but not necessarily teleworking. Both terms were coined by Jack Nilles in the 1970s.
Important point: many people and organizations are moving away from both the term telework and telecommuting in favor of remote work, distributed work, mobile work, smart working (UK), and workshifting (Canada).
More important point: If you’re confused by all the conflicting numbers you read about telework, join the club. We explain the problem and try to offer a clearer view here.
Most important point: Unless noted, the numbers below do not include the self-employed.
Summary of Telecommuting Trends
How many employees work from home?
• 5 million employees (3.6% of the U.S. employee workforce) currently work-at-home half-time or more [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2018 American Community Service (ACS) data]
• Regular work-at-home has grown 173% since 2005, 11% faster than the rest of the workforce (which grew 15%) and nearly 47x faster than the self-employed population (which grew by 4%) [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2018 ACS data]
• 43% of employees work remotely with some frequency [Gallup State of the American Workplace 2016]
How many people could work-from-home?
• 56% of employees have a job where at least some of what they do could be done remotely [Global Workplace Analytics]
• 62% of employees say they could work remotely [Citrix 2019 poll]
• Studies repeatedly show desks are vacant 50-60% of the time.
How many people want to work from home?
• 80% of employees want to work from home at least some of the time [State of Remote Work 2019, Owl Labs]
• Only 12% of federal employees say they would not want to work from home at least some of the time [Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey 2018]
• 35% of employees would change jobs for the opportunity to work remotely full time (47% of Millennials and 31% of boomers); 37% would do so to work remotely some of the time (50% of Millennials and 33% of Boomers) [State of the American Workforce, Gallup, 2016]
• Flexibility is one of the highest-ranked benefits by Millennials, even higher than student loans or tuition reimbursement. It ranked high for Boomers too although the percentages were 15-20 points lower. [State of the American Workforce, Gallup, 2017]
• More than a third of workers would take a pay cut of up to 5% in exchange for the option to work remotely at least some of the time; a quarter would take a 10% pay cut; 20% would take an even greater cut. [State of Remote Work 2019, Owl Labs]
What are the demographics of people who work-from-home?
• A typical telecommuter is college-educated, 45 years old or older, and earns an annual salary of $58,000 while working for a company with more than 100 employees. 75% of employees who work from home earn over $65,000 per year, putting them in the upper 80th percentile of all employees–home or office-based. [Global Workplace Analytics’ special analysis of 2016 ACS data]
• The chart below shows the percentage of people who work-at-home by industry. [Global Workplace Analytics’ special analysis of 2016 ACS data]
• Using home as a ‘reasonable accommodation’ per the Americans with Disabilities Act, 463,000 disabled employees regularly work from home (7.1% of the disabled).
Who offers remote work?
• Forty percent more U.S. employers offered flexible workplace options than did five years ago. But only 7% make it available to most or all of their employees. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of BLS data]
• 69% of employers offer remote work on an ad hoc basis to at least some employees, 42% offer it part-time, 27% offer it full time [SHRM 2019 Employee Benefits Survey]
• Larger companies are most likely to offer telecommuting options to most of their employees. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2017 ACS data]
• New England and Mid-Atlantic region employers are the most likely to offer telecommuting options. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2017 ACS data]
• Full-time employees are four times more likely to have work-at-home options than part-time workers. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2017 ACS data]
• Non-union workers are twice as likely to have access to telecommuting, but union access is growing rapidly. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2017 ACS data]
How often do people work from home?
While there is no government data that provides additional granularity on the frequency of telework, we offer the following:
• 3.6% of the workforce works remotely half time or more [Global Workplace Analytics’ special analysis of 2018 ACS data]43% of the workforce works remotely at some frequency [State of the American Workforce, Gallup, 2016]
• Two to three days a week seems to be the sweet spot that allows for a balance of concentrative work (at home) and collaborative work (at the office) [Global Workplace Analytics’ observation of clients and case studies, 2020]
How do employers benefit from remote work?
Based on conservative assumptions, we estimate a typical employer can save an average of $11,000 per half-time telecommuter per year. The primary savings are the result of increased productivity, lower real estate costs, reduced absenteeism and turnover, and better disaster preparedness. Employers can calculate their own potential savings on our free Telework Savings Calculator™ which a report to Congress by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget referred to as “comprehensive and based on solid research.”
How do employees benefit from remote work?
We estimate that employees save between $2,500 and $4,000 per year by working at home half the time. Those savings are primarily due to reduced costs for travel, parking, and food. They are net of additional energy costs and home food costs.
In terms of time, a half-time telecommuter saves the equivalent of 11 workdays per year in time they would have otherwise spent commuting. Extreme commuters save more than three times that about. These estimates assume a 75% reduction in driving on telework days.
Click here for additional benefits for employees who work at home.
How does society and the environment benefit from remote work?
Eliminating or reducing commuter travel is the easiest and most effective way for a company or individual to reduce their carbon footprint. Based on our estimates, if those who have a work-from-home compatible job and a desire to work remotely did so just half the time, the greenhouse gas reduction would be the equivalent to taking the entire New York State workforce off the road.
Click here for additional benefits of remote work for the community and environment.
Still hungry for information?
Additional Information for Reporters
We are constantly updating our database of over 5,000 documents on telework, activity-based work, co-working, remote work, work-from-home, and other emerging workplace strategies.
Reporters, feel free to call or email for the latest data or for additional information about:
• State and local work-at-home numbers
• Global and regional remote work trends
• Work-from-home demographics (gender, age, education, private/public sector, industry, income, etc.)
• Global and U.S. drivers of telework
• Best practices for work-at-home strategies
• Advantages and disadvantages of telework for employers/employees
• Industry contacts/potential interviewees (employers/employees)
• Workplace flexibility and its impact on employee well-being
• Other future of work trends
Kate Lister, president of Global Workplace Analytics, can be reached at kate-at-globalworkplaceanalytics.com or 760-703-0377 (Pacific Time).
A note to students:
TL;DR – We will not do your homework for you.
We do not take kindly to being interrupted with requests from students who have not bothered to do their own research or tried to find what they need by combing this site and downloading our free resources.
Telling us how urgently you need the information because your paper or thesis is due tomorrow will not help your cause, nor will incomplete or incoherent requests. You can assume we will not respond because, as the saying goes, a lack of planning on your part does not constitute an emergency on our part.
But, if you’ve tried your best and still can’t find what you need, you’re welcome to write to us, tell us who you are, what you’re working on, what you want (not, for example, “Can you send me citations for all the statistics on your website?”), and why you’re asking. When we can find time between client work (in other words people who pay us to help), we’ll get back to you. No really, we will.
“Please” and “thank you,” will go a long way toward helping your cause.
Sorry if we’re grouchy, but you ought to see some of the stuff we get from lazy students…
About Global Workplace Analytics and Kate Lister
Kate Lister, is a recognized thought leader on the future of work. She is president of Global Workplace Analytics (GWA) a 13-year-old research and consulting firm that helps employers understand and prepare for the future of work. Their expertise is focused on workplace, workforce, technology, and other trends that are changing the who, what, when, where, and how of work.
Working with some of the world’s most respected brands, GWA helps make the ‘people, planet, and profit’ business case for workplace change and collaborates to publish a wide range of original and secondary research. In the spirit of sharing, GWA many calculators and much of its research available for free on this website.
GWA’s proprietary tools include:
• An extensive digital library with over 5,000 research reports, case studies, and other content related to the technologies, trends, and scientific understandings that are transforming the way people work
• A variety of customizable web-based and mobile calculators that estimate the ROI of workplace change
• Model business cases for a wide range of workplace strategies and stakeholders
• Templates for collecting pre- and post-strategy measures of success
GWA’s research has been cited by hundreds of publications including the Harvard Business Review, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, and many others.
She is a member of the strategic advisory board and leadership team of Workplace Evolutionaries (WE), a global group of leading workplace thinkers and doers who are dedicated to “changing the world one workplace at a time.”
Kate has written or co-authored six books and hundreds of articles for major media outlets. Her most recent book contribution was as the writer of the U.S. chapter of a peer-reviewed examination of global remote work trends called “Telework in the 21st Century” (Edward Elgar, 2019).
Kate is a sought-after speaker and an active member of IFMA’s Workplace Evolutionaries (WE) leadership and research teams. Kate lives in a San Diego CA suburb with her husband and three dogs. She teases that she charges clients extra if she has to travel anywhere that’s too cold, too hot, too humid, or too buggy. She offers a discount for fun companies and cool gigs. For more details, please visit the About and What We Do pages.
Kate is available for interviews and will happily help reporters identify additional resources. She can be reached at 760-703-0377 (Pacific Time) or Kate@GlobalWorkplaceAnalytics.com.
Telecommuting Benefits: The Bottom Line (redacted)
The Bottom Line on Telework for the Thurston Region State and Local Governments
This report offers a data-driven analysis of the potential for telework to enhance the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of Thurston WA region state and local government. Based on a conservative set of assumptions drawn from a synthesis of over 4,000 data sources, we calculate that the impact of twice weekly telework by 30% of the region’s public sector workforce could: Save approximately $58 million per…
The Bottom Line on Telework for the Thurston Region State and Local Governments (redacted)
The Bottom Line on Telework-California Government Workforce
State and local government employees are bummed out, burned out, and stressed out from the endless struggle of trying to do more with less. To make matters worse, more than half the state’s most experienced people are moving toward the door to retirement. If California expects to attract a new generation of talented government leaders and staff workers it needs to find a new way of working, both figuratively and literally. This report…
The Bottom Line on Telework–California Government Workforce (redacted)
The ROI of Well-Being for Employers
Employees are every organization’s most expensive and most valuable asset, yet we continually make thoughtless decisions (e.g., real estate, furnishings, etc.) that cripple their productivity and ignore the less visible but more impactful options. Employees are so valuable that an increase in productivity of just eight minutes a day, for a year, would entirely offset their annual occupancy costs. However, people cannot be engaged or…
The Shifting nature of Work in the UK – Bottom Line Benefits of Telework
Thanks to advances in technology, work no longer needs to be tethered by time or place. Citrix calls this shift from work as a noun to work as a verb, ‘work shifting’. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the financial and environmental benefits of the growing trend. It will show how twice weekly home working, by those with compatible jobs and a desire to do so, could save UK companies,…
The Shifting nature of Work in the UK – Bottom Line Benefits of Telework (redacted)
The State of Telework in the U.S. 2011 – How Individuals, Business, and Government Benefit
No one would disagree that the U.S. workforce is increasingly mobile. But, beyond that broad statement, we know little about the rate of increase in mobility—how often people are out of the office, where they are, and what they’re doing. For that matter, there’s no agreed-upon method of defining who they are. Using public and private sector sources, the purpose of this paper is to…
The State of Telework in the U.S. 2011 – How Individuals, Business, and Government Benefit (redacted)
What’s Good For People—Workplace Well-Being
The bottom line impact of wellness is clear, it needs to be a strategic priority. Stockholders would demand it, if they understood that increases in productivity brought about by improved wellness outstrip even real estate costs. Most organizations invest in wellness, but few address the broader topic of well-being. The indirect costs of poor health and poor well-being trump direct costs by a wide margin. There is a direct relationship…
WORKshift Canada: The Bottom Line On Telework
This report shows how part-time telecommuting by the 4.3 million Canadians with compatible jobs and a desire to work from home could have a bottom line impact of over $53 billion per year. An employer with 250 telecommuters, for example, would save over $3 million per year
WORKshift Canada: The Bottom Line On Telework (redacted)